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The pen is mightier than the sword

Have you ever been faced with an impossible situation? Recently, I’ve been faced with a situation where I can make no physical change. What I want, I can’t make happen. I have no power to affect change. I’m a fixer by nature. I don’t let things go. I want to try and try and try to make a difference. But now, I’m in a position where I can’t make anything happen. The situation is out of my hands and I don’t like that.

Instead of feeling hopeless, I’m hopeful but probably not for the reasons you think. I’m hopeful because of the old adage, the pen is mightier than the sword. The phrase came from Edward Bulwer-Lytton in 1839, in his play Cardinal Richelieu. Usually, the phrase is used to discourage violence or physical altercation and to defer to political and administrative intervention.

Edward Bulwer-Lytton
https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-30729480

You might think I’m planning on petitioning my Representative or some lobbyist. The issue I need fixing is far beyond the scope of Columbus, OH, or Washington D.C. Very few if any problems are fixed by politics, this one is way outside of their control but I’m still hopeful because the pen is mightier than the sword.

How am I hopeful? I have a situation where I need some change, some power to be on display. I didn’t write an edict or submit a law to be passed. I don’t know a lobbyist. Instead, I did a simple task that has profound strength and might. I took the situation and wrote it down on a 3×5 notecard, that’s it. I wrote it down on a regular notecard. It is the most powerful thing I can do.

Several years ago, I read A Praying Life by Paul Miller. In this book, he shares his method of cataloging his prayer requests. He takes individuals, situations, and personal issues and writes them on 3×5 notecards. On those cards, he writes specific prayer requests and Bible verses to guide him as he prays. His method has been very helpful to me. It is one that I use regularly.

I have a small binder clip with my notecards. On those cards are people, issues, and groups I pray for regularly. I have a couple of cards for those dearest to me. Why the 3×5 cards? Honestly, if I listed everything on a piece of paper that I wanted to pray for in a given day or week, I’d be overwhelmed and distracted. However, if individual things are on a 3×5 card, I know I can hold that in my hand and pray for it. Sometimes, I get through the whole stack, other times, I don’t. I have cards I pray for daily and others I pray for weekly.

But in it all, it’s just a 3×5 card that isn’t intimidating, unless, of course, you are resisting the God of the universe because I’m praying to Him. He spoke the world into existence (Gen 1-2). He upholds the world by the word of his power (Heb 1). All the world was created for him (Col 1:15-20). He knows all things from the end to the beginning and works it in accordance with his will (Is 46:10). He will not let the evil of this world win and will use the evil in this world to bring about his good (Gen 50:20, Rom 8:28). He laughs at the nations and rulers who try to resist him (Ps 2). Things for me (and you) are impossible but that’s ok because what is impossible with man is possible for God (Matt 19:26).

Sometimes, when we are faced with an impossible situation, we think, “I can’t do anything!” This is not true. You can’t make a change but you can do something. You can pray. I can pray. When we pray, we aren’t saying we are powerful. Instead, we are declaring our dependence and inability. We are lifting our prayer requests to the Lord who is powerful and mighty. He desires to move and act but in his great providence, he uses the prayers of man to accomplish his purposes so we must pray. We must ask him (James 4:2).  

Why should you write down your prayer requests? Because the pen is mightier than the sword and your mind. When you write down a request, you are writing it down because you want to see it, pray about it, and because you are taking it seriously. Secondly, life is crazy. If you are like me and you have more going on in your life than you want. It can be very easy to forget things, even when they are important. If you write down your prayer request on a card, it’s impossible to forget. You’ll see that small stack of cards and be reminded to pray. You can’t make anything happen but you can pray!

I don’t have the power or ability to make the change I want. I can’t produce the outcome I desire but I can pray. I can be disciplined to pray to the Lord. I am thankful that God hears our prayers and answers prayers. Maybe you need to find some 3×5 notecards and pray. You can’t make things happen but you can do something. You can pray.

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Book Review: Bully Pulpit by Michael Kruger

Michael Kruger, Bully Pulpit: Confronting the Problem of Spiritual Abuse in the Church. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2022.

The idea of spiritual abuse is a hot-button issue. I was quite impressed to see Michael Kruger, a well-known New Testament scholar, and seminary president address this topic. He did a fantastic job. In reviewing this book, I have used some key quotes, especially from the beginning of the book, and fewer quotes and more summaries in the more pragmatic chapters at the end of the book. I encourage you to read the book on your own. Here is what I found most helpful:

9780310136385
https://www.amazon.com/Bully-Pulpit-Confronting-Problem-Spiritual/dp/0310136385/ref=sr_1_1?crid=2XVPS9J926417&keywords=bully+pulpit+michael+kruger&qid=1674649803&qu=eyJxc2MiOiIxLjMwIiwicXNhIjoiMS4xNyIsInFzcCI6IjEuNTIifQ%3D%3D&sprefix=bully+pul%2Caps%2C122&sr=8-1

Introduction:

“Some of the leaders we are producing –and, if we’re honest, some of the leaders we are wanting –have characteristics that are either absent from or completely opposed to the list of leadership characteristics laid out in Scripture (xi).”

“Here’s my point: some churches seem to have a lot of angst over whether there might be a church member somewhere bucking church authority. But there seems to be notably less concern over whether church leaders ever abuse that same authority. In their view, if there’s a problem with church authority, it’s almost. Always that there’s not enough of it rather than it going too far (xvii).”

“Yet the fact remains: some pastors are abusive (xvi).”

“So something needs to change. For the sake of the peace and purity of the church. And for the sake of the sheep we are called to protect, we must think more carefully about the type of leaders we are producing (xviii).”

Writing and using the term “victims.”

“First, some will take the use of this term as evidence that this volume is advocating a. Quote UN quote “victim mentality” among those who have suffered injustice, a mentality which presumes means that a person is free to build their whole identity around the bad things that have happened to them, blaming those injustices for all the problems in their life. But I wholeheartedly reject such a notion (xv).”

Chapter 1: The First Shall Be First

In this chapter, he begins to give case studies that focus on some prominent figures such as Mark Driscoll, Billy Hybels, James MacDonald, and Steve Timmis. He shows how their abusive power resulted in a ministry focused on a leader of charisma and celebrity instead of the biblical character qualifications.

“Given the church’s propensity to mimic the culture, it’s no surprise that the previous generation has seen increasing numbers of so-called celebrity pastors. Some churches want their own franchise player –someone who is strong, dynamic, and inspiring. They want someone exceptional, a charismatic visionary who can lead the way (9).”

“To be sure, the celebrity pastor doesn’t have to be exceptional to expect special treatment. It doesn’t matter if his church is 50 people or 500. He merely has to be the big fish in his own little pond (10).”

Writing on the need for servant leadership and not lordship, “Maybe we have hired men more eager to call down Thunder than to dawn. The servants towel and wash people’s feet (16).”

He begins his call to action which outlines the rest of the book. In this call to action, he is calling on fellow pastors and churches to care for the church by protecting her from bully pastors. “What if loving the church means loving the sheep – whom Christ loves –and guarding them against the wolves Christ asked us to watch out for (18)?”

“In other words, that the church is the beloved bride of Christ is not a reason to care less about her shortcomings; it’s a reason to care more. Indeed, the church is the most important institution on the planet. My prayer is that we can move past these defensive postures that might have built up from the unjust critiques over the last generation so that we can hear the just critiques. We need to stop thinking like lawyers – ready to litigate and rebut each and every attack – and instead be willing to hear the truth if it is spoken in our midst (18).”

Chapter 2: That Which Shall Not Be Named

The task to define spiritual abuse is the challenge. It is nebulous in some ways but this book couldn’t exist if he did not settle on a specific definition. He begins by saying what spiritual abuse is not before defining it. Spiritual abuse is not physical or sexual abuse. Those areas are defined and more determinative in nature. Spiritual abuse is more along the lines of emotional or psychological abuse. Older books on pastoral ministry used terms like spiritual tyranny and spiritual oppression which are more explicative of the idea.

Kruger defines spiritual abuse as, “When a spiritual leader –such as a pastor, elder, or head of a Christian organization – wields his position of spiritual authority in such a way that he manipulates domineers, bullies, and intimidates those under him as a means of maintaining his own power and control, even if he is convinced he is seeking biblical and kingdom-related goals (24).”

He highlights several keys to this definition. First, spiritual abuse involves someone in a position of spiritual authority. This aspect becomes quite harmful because when the person speaks, it is presumed, implicitly or explicitly, that they speak for God.

Second, spiritual abuse involves sinful methods of controlling and domineering others. The characteristics of gentleness and patience are replaced with aggressive means of lording power instead of serving as our Lord. He says, “The abusive pastor denigrates others not only to feel better about himself (thus feeding his narcissism) but also to demoralize those under him (29). He highlights those areas where someone is hypercritical, cruel, threatening, defensive, and manipulative. These types of characteristics lead to church members being afraid of their pastor. He points out, “It is not normal for people to have this sort of fear of their pastor (31).” The defensive pastor is critical but unable to take criticism, Kruger claims, a classic trait of a narcissist. Third, spiritual abusers seem to be building God’s Kingdom (but are building their own).

Finally, as a way to clarify some opposition, he gives five things that are not abuse. They are being unfriendly, intimidating personalities, not getting along, accidentally hurting someone, and confronting people’s sins. The challenge is that spiritual abuse is not a black-and-white issue. His definition and subsequent explanations are helpful as he continues his call to action regarding spiritual abuse even if a definition of it is “muddled and undefined (39).”

Chapter 3: A Heavy Yoke On Us

Kruger begins by examining evidence of sin and abuse in Old Testament before moving to the New Testament. His arguments for the Old Testament grounded all spiritual abuse in sin. The New Testament arguments were more helpful as he showed the servant nature of Jesus’s ministry. It is service, not authority that must describe the Christian ministry.

Kruger encourages churches to look for a gentle minister. The gentle minister is the antithesis of a narcissist. The narcissist shows no willingness to receive criticism. The humble minister can receive criticism. The final characteristic is kindness. The spiritually abusive is not kind because he “has a pattern of self-protection and self-gain (54).” The bully pastor seeks power and control (55).

 He finished this chapter by looking at the call of elders in 1 Peter 5. He points out that the word eager in 1 Pt 5:2 “was historically used to describe civic leaders who sacrificed their time and money for the good of the city they served (55).” The following verse says elders should serve as examples. Kruger contrasts this with the self-seeking bully pastor who does not lead by example. “In other words, he does not stand behind the sheep, cracking the whip, but goes before the sheep as an example to follow (55).”  He concludes the chapter with a sobering statement, “People don’t expect kindness from their leaders (57).”

Chapter 4: A Trail of Dead Bodies

The bully pastor acts aggressively and leaves many behind wounded sheep. Kruger argues the sheep are not left for dead in the open but rather are hidden from the church at large. His reasoning is as follows: “First, many victims of abusive pastors are silenced or forced to leave (62).” The second is, “the abusive pastor’s pattern of broken relationships is often no revealed to the larger leadership body and certainly not to the entire church (62).” Whenever it is revealed, “the problem is often downplayed and minimized – it’s viewed as a conflict that is inevitable in any ministry (63).”

He did a great job arguing against the sinfulness of both the victim and the abusive pastor. “Sadly, yet another misunderstanding of grace has to be used to defend abusive pastors and further harm the victims. If we are all equally sinful, it is argued, then that must mean the abusive pastor and the victim are equally to blame for the conflict. A wrong understanding of grace is used to minimize the heinousness of the abuse and accentuate the sins of the victim, whatever they may be (70).”

He offers several principles to keep if there is to be any reconciliation between the abusive pastor and victim. “First, victims should not be asked to meet with an abusive pastor unless he has been held accountable (71). Second, victims should not meet with an abusive pastor unless he is genuinely repentant (72). Third, victims should not meet with an abusive pastor until they are emotionally and spiritually ready (72).” His caution in these areas is to protect victims and keep an abusive pastor accountable.

Chapter 5: Flipping the Script

Kruger uses this chapter to help churches identify the ways an abusive pastor manipulates and distorts biblical teaching and healthy relational structures. In his study, he found the greatest misuse of Matthew 18. He argues for a biblical approach that protects the victims.

He says, “We must remember that Matthew 18 applies only to the individuals who have been sinned against (82).” The abusive pastor can misuse this passage and hide behind an elder board. The victim can be railroaded by the abusive pastor who tries to make the “sin” of bringing offense to an elder board instead of addressing the abusive pastor directly. Kruger hopes to use the information from the last chapter to interpret Matthew 18 more rightly within the context of an abusive pastor. He plainly states, “Some abusive pastors treat Matthew 18 like Miranda rights (83).” The procedure does not trump sin. “Even if the accuser follows Matthew 18 and the abusive pastor admits some wrongdoing, that does not necessarily mean the behavior should not be reported to the church’s leadership (83).” The procedure is not a sin. It is a distraction and tactic by an abusive pastor. “If a pastor is accused of abusive behavior, be wary if procedural issues become the biggest concern of all those involved (84).”

Paramount to caring for victims and holding pastors accountable is the culture where people are free to speak up. “First, they need to make sure they have the correct definition of slander (86).” He goes on to say, “To speak up about a pastor’s abusive behavior – in appropriate ways – is not slander (86).” Furthermore, “Churches need to avoid creating a culture of fear around slander by assessing, honestly and fairly, the likelihood of false accusations of abuse against a pastor (87).”

The congregation should aim to protect victims from the attacks of abusive pastors. An abusive pastor “might bring up the past sins of the victims (90).” “In addition to highlighting past sins, the abusive pastor might attack the way the victims are handling the conflict (90).” “Sometimes victims are accused of having a victimhood mentality (91-92).” The final attack is sinister, “It is not unusual for an abusive pastor to fabricate claims against the victims to make himself look better (93).”

Chapter 6: Suffering in Silence

One of the illustrations, Kruger used was from The Lord of the Rings Trilogy. At the end of the story, he cites the conversation between Sam and Frodo. Sam is speaking and asks Frodo if he is going to enjoy the Shire. Frodo responds by saying, “I’ve been too deeply hurt, Sam. I tried to save the Shire and it has been saved, but not for me. It must be so, Sam, when things are in danger: someone has to give them up, lose them, so others may keep them (98).” The stark reality of people speaking up to make significant cultural changes is real. If we are to see any change, it is possible that someone must take the hurt, and someone must take the pain so that others can be safe.

Fear, anger, shame, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder are all ways victims suffer emotionally when an abusive pastor acts aggressively and when the victim is not cared for properly. Van der Kolk wrote The Body Keeps the Score and Kruger uses this book to state, “Spiritual abuse is prone to create deep and serious mental scars that in turn can produce long-term physiological consequence (103).”

Special care to victims must be given because there are various spiritual effects as a result of an abusive pastor. Victims can have doubts about the church, Christianity, God, and even themselves. Those left in the trail behind an abusive pastor should not be left to suffer in silence.

Chapter 7: They Shall Not Hurt or Destroy

This chapter is more practical for churches. He begins with ways to prevent an abusive pastor from coming to the church. The way to keep abusive pastors away is to emphasize character over competency. Once a pastor is called, there are ways to help create a culture of accountability. Rotating preaching schedules, offering real feedback, and even providing an independent leadership board. The independent leadership board should, as argued by Kruger, include people from various socioeconomic levels, and educational levels, and should have both men and women.

The goal is to create genuine transparency. He gives two interesting ways to create this culture. He suggests publishing minutes from elder meetings. The second is to allow for an annual public forum with opportunities for questions and answers. This is not the place to accuse an abusive pastor that should be done in private to allow for proper channels and keep a public presumption of innocence until an investigation is finished.

Epilogue: A Final Word to Christian Leaders

As Kruger ends the book, he ends states, “The job of the shepherd is to care for the sheep, and this includes feeding them, protecting them, encouraging them, binding up their wounds, and, yes, correcting them when needed (140).” The quote from Thomas Watson is helpful, “A humble Christian studies his infirmities, and another’s excellencies (141).”

Bully Pulpit is helpful both thinking through the idea of spiritual abuse from prevention, care, and accountability. I give Kruger credit for taking on this tough topic. You might want to change the way he creates an accountability structure, but he has a method. If you do not have a method, this is better. Some method is better than no method.

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2022 Books in Review

2022 is a wrap! I always like to see my progress as a reader when the year is finished. I log all the books I finished through Good Reads. I read 55 books in 2022 and 24,471 pages. All this is from someone who did not read a book until college.

I read much more this last year than what is listed. I read portions of and wrote small reviews for almost another 50 books. I only log books that I finish in the calendar year. I record books that I finish on audiobooks. If you think that is cheating or taking a shortcut, should you record the books you read, you are welcome to keep those off your list! With 55 books this last year, I’ve ranked third place out of three with my family who records their books! I’m counting audio books because I need all the help I can get!

A couple of notes about the books you’ll see. First, you will see books about the Bible and Bible commentaries. I preached through Matthew over the last two years. I included the commentaries that I read for the sermon series. I read almost all of those commentaries, only skipping the parts that are redundant or where they quote one another.

You will also see some fiction novels. I read fiction for two reasons. First, I enjoy it. It helps me to read to turn my mind off from thinking about church issues. It is an escape and an enjoyable one for me. Second, there are some fiction books that I read because I like stories and I am trying to learn how to write and tell stories better. As a preacher, I have a lot of growing to do. Those who teach preaching encourage reading fiction to develop as a storyteller. Oddly enough, they also encourage listening to comics to learn about speaking rate and inflection. They don’t encourage the use of jokes and gimmicks but do so for the public speaking aspect.  

There are a couple of books on non-fiction educational learning. The Body Keeps the Score and The Boy Crisis came highly recommended. I learned a lot from these books. They did not give sufficient answers to the questions and problems they posed but looking at the problem of trauma and manhood through a secular lens was helpful.

Best books:

The Bible is still undefeated. If you haven’t read it yet, you should. It’ll change your life! This next year, I’m reading the Grace and Truth NIV Bible.

A Dozen Things God Did with Your Sin and Three Things He’ll Never Do had some of the best chapters I read this year. The book is very good some chapters were excellent to think about how God deals with sin.

The Temple and the Church’s Mission this book is phenomenal. I wish I would have read it earlier. I plan to read more Beale this coming year.

Deep Discipleship is a good book that I’m not done thinking about yet. In the book, J.T. English challenges us to think about discipleship in the church as churches use small groups. He argues that we have forgotten the educational aspect of groups as we have encouraged fellowship/community in groups, think of the difference between Sunday school (education) and community groups (fellowship). I’m not sure exactly how his model works with the church I pastor but I’ll keep thinking.

Books I should have enjoyed more: The Rise and Triumph of the Modern Self came as one of the highest-reviewed books of the year. There is an abridgment that I plan on reading this year. I liked this book but there was a fair amount of material that did not interest me in the slightest. The Count of Monte Cristo is the best five books in one I have ever read. I started the year with this book and it nearly killed me. It was very good in spots but I’ve never wanted an abridgment more than this book. The audiobook is a mere 52 hours and 45 minutes. Insane.

Books I learned from as a pastor: Old Time Religion in the Southern Appalachians, I found this book at Half-Price books for a couple of dollars and read it in an afternoon. It was not great but it helped me understand some of the religious backgrounds of my church members who came from mining towns in Kentucky. The Devil Is Here in These Hills taught me so much about coal miners in the Appalachians. It was almost completely new material for me and it was fascinating as it was depressing.

Books that encouraged me: The Bruised Reed is a small book by Richard Sibbes, a puritan. It is a great book that focuses on the Lord’s kindness to us. If you are struggling with your faith, this book will encourage you. Praying the Bible is a reread for me. It is a great little premier on praying through Scripture.

That’s a wrap for me. What are your plans to read in 2023?

How to Build a Healthy Church by Mark Dever
Fortress Britain by Glynn James
The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas
The Gospel of Matthew Volume One by William Barclay
Fallout by Craig Alanson
Sierra Six by Mark Greaney
The Judge's List by John Grisham
The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à Kempis
The Holy Trinity by Robert Letham
Celtic Empire by Clive Cussler
The Bruised Reed by Richard Sibbes

Christ-Centered Preaching by Bryan Chapell
Praying the Bible by Donald S. Whitney
First Strike by Ben Coes
The Body Keeps the Score by Bessel van der Kolk
3 a.m. by Nick Pirog
3 by Nick Pirog
3 by Nick Pirog
3 by Nick Pirog
3 by Nick Pirog
Three Parts Dead by Glynn James
The Temple and the Church's Mission by G.K. Beale
Trap the Devil by Ben Coes
Biblical Eldership by Alexander Strauch
The Devil Is Here in These Hills by James R. Green
Rediscover Church by Collin Hansen
Convergence by Craig Alanson
A Spy Among Friends by Ben Macintyre
A Dozen Things God Did with Your Sin by Sam Storms
The Knowledge of the Holy by A.W. Tozer
The Boy Crisis by Warren Farrell
Sparring Partners by John Grisham
Oath of Loyalty by Kyle Mills
The Valley of Vision by Arthur      Bennett
The Terminal List by Jack Carr
Savage Son by Jack Carr
The Rise and Triumph of the Modern Self by Carl R. Trueman
Old Time Religion in the Southern Appalachians by Larry G. Morgan
By Whose Authority? Elders In Baptist Life by Mark Dever
Acts 20 by Alexander Strauch
The Gospel of Matthew by James Montgomery Boice
Matthew by William Hendriksen and Simo...
Matthew by Craig L. Blomberg
Deep Discipleship by J.T. English
Matthew by D.A. Carson
The Gospel according to Matthew by Leon L. Morris

The Gospel of Matthew by Craig S. Keener
CSB Study Bible by Anonymous
In the Blood by Jack Carr
Maximum Violence by Glynn James
The Devil's Hand by Jack Carr
True Believer by Jack Carr
Match Game by Craig Alanson
Rising Tiger by Brad Thor
Failure Mode by Craig Alanson

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Fletcher, I’d like you to reconsider.

You wrote an article for The Gospel Coalition where you shared about your church closing on Christmas. I would like you to reconsider. You don’t know me and I don’t know you so I’d like to introduce myself to you.

We went to the same school, have mutual friends, and even share the Send Network. What you need to know is I’m committed to seeing churches flourish in New England, especially in the Boston area.

I was born and raised in Florida but I have New England blood. Steve Grogan was my favorite Patriots QB until Brady brought us back from being down 28-3. For years, my grandparents would bring Fluff to us so I was able to trade Fluffernutters in elementary school at the lunch table. I may even consider church discipline if someone says marshmallow creme is the same as Fluff. I hate the Mets and the Jets. I am still trying to forgive Billy Buckner for 1986. Anytime someone says, “Number Four” I reply with “Bobby Orr.” I don’t care what anyone says, Bill Russell is the greatest champion and Larry is still underrated. The only proper donut is from Dunkin, sorry Krispy Kreme.

Steve Grogan the neck roll-wearing Quarterback of the Patriots. https://touchdownwire.usatoday.com/2020/03/19/these-14-quarterbacks-started-for-the-patriots-before-tom-brady-did-the-job-for-20-years-2/steve-grogan-calls-the-count-2/

I thank God for the work that is going on with Send Boston and the other networks of churches in the area. You started your article disagreeing with Kevin DeYoung. Usually, that’s not a good starting point. Sadly, I think it may be the strongest part of your article. Here’s why you should reconsider and meet on Christmas Day this year.

First, the counter to your argument is written by Dustin Messer, an Anglican. Both DeYoung and Messer are meeting on Christmas Day. Since you are a Baptist, I would encourage you to have better ecclesiology than them! Ha!

Secondly, you should meet on Christmas Day because it simply is what Christians do. In your article, you mentioned two reasons to not meet. You mentioned that 80 people in your church would be traveling out of town and the set-up would be challenging. You then mentioned the highly secular area of your church would not lead you to believe any neighbors would be joining for worship.

You gave a great counter to your arguments when you said if you had a service your members would attend. I’d like to look back at your points and think differently about them. Hopefully, by the end, you’ll have reconsidered.

Your church, mine, and every other church do not exist for their neighbors. We exist for the glory of God as the body of Christ. You have 20 people who would “almost certainly come to any service we (you) put together.” Brother, you have 20 people ready to worship King Jesus on his birthday!

Also, let’s think about the set-up and takedown.  I served for years at a church plant. Set-up and takedown are tough but it doesn’t have to be for 20 people. You don’t need smoke and lights. You don’t even need mics. You need a Bible and 20 chairs. I get that it is “uniquely difficult” but difficult isn’t impossible.

Thirdly, you mentioned the context of your situation and the context of Hebrews 10:25 and here I think you are mistaken. Hebrews 10:25 says, “not neglecting to meet together” you focused on the habit aspect of not meeting together. The problem is not meeting together, habit or not. The church in Hebrews and yours are neglecting, forsaking, and abandoning meeting together. I want to encourage you to meet. I think your context demands it. The spiritual darkness of Somerville needs it.

The last time Christmas was on a Sunday was back in 2016. I was a missionary in Ecuador at that time. I preached that morning and as I did, I looked out to an older lady who was fighting sleep. She was there though and I appreciated it. After service, I learned she traveled 8 hours on a bus overnight so that she could be in service that day. For the sermon, I dressed up like Joseph and ran into the church yelling, “I’m a father, I’m a father!” It was my favorite service I ever preached in Ecuador, maybe ever. The service was great. I was happy, we had about twenty that day.

If you don’t meet for worship this Christmas Day, maybe you will next time. The next time Christmas is on a Sunday is in 2033.

Fletcher, I’d like you to reconsider.  

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A Personal Reflection of Veteran’s Day

The glorious DA Photo.

Veteran’s Day began as Armistice Day during World War I. At the eleventh hour on the eleventh day of the eleventh month, Allied Forces and German temporarily ceased their hostilities, an armistice. Armistice Day continued to be a day to remember those who died during WWI. The name was officially changed from Armistice Day to Veteran’s Day in 1954 by Dwight D. Eisenhower. This is the history of Veteran’s Day but it is not my history of Veteran’s Day. I’d like to tell you my history of Veteran’s Day.

On April 21, 2001, I joined the U.S. Army. Two weeks after graduating Highschool, I entered Basic Training. The last field training exercise I had in training was on September 11, 2001. I moved back home to Florida and waited to start college. I can still remember the first time I took my friends to the Veteran’s Day Feast Fest. What is that? It is a modified progressive dinner. Most progressive dinners will give a different course at subsequent locations. Veteran’s Day Feast Fest is just multiple dinners at restaurants that give free food to Veterans. It would make Hobbits jealous.

For many years, I would start at Starbucks for coffee, Krispy Kreme and Dunkin for breakfast. Then I’d find a pizza place or Red Robin for a burger. Dinner is always a challenge because this is when the old timers come out in their mesh trucker hats with their military unit on them. They’ve got a vest, scraggly beard, and usually a cane. They come to eat and they usually stay a while. Usually, after dinner the food coma sets in, the meat sweats haven’t stopped since the second lunch so then after a couple of Tums, I’d fall asleep. Thankful for my country, the free food, and the opportunity to serve in the Army.

After getting married in 2008, Veteran’s Day Feast Fest (VDFF) became a dual celebration. Katie’s birthday is November 9th so we would often combine her birthday and VDFF. She always thought it was ridiculous. I thought it was ridiculous she only wanted one lunch!

Here is me with Marine One in the background. President Obama was visiting Orlando during one of my Battle Assembly Weekends. We were used in the background photo for him and earlier I was in the background when I met President Bush during my deployment.

A couple of years later, we were out celebrating VDFF and I got a phone call. It was a phone call that changed so much for me. VDFF changed. How I viewed the world changed. How I viewed my military service changed. The week of Katie’s birthday changed. It all changed because I got a call to put on my dress uniform and go inform a family that their 18-year-old son, who had only been overseas for a month and a half was dead. For them, Veteran’s Day would forever point to Memorial Day.

For me, a day of celebrating and feasting immediately turned into a day of darkness and difficulty. The joy of service became the bitter reality of the cost of service. It became the hardest day.

I’m learning hard days, even the hardest ones are not days to avoid. In the face of difficulty, we can cower in fear or we can face it. If we choose to face difficulty, and I think we should, we can approach cautiously or we can approach confidently. If we are given these two options of caution or confidence, we must choose confidence. Throw caution to the wind, you have just this one life so live each day and give each day all you can. Caution never captures the prize. Have confidence in the face of difficulty. Something will break, as long as it isn’t you, you will conquer. Sure you will be tired and maybe have some scars but those will just be reminders of victory. Go confidently. To the victors belong the spoils. We could say that another way, on Veteran’s Day, we feast.  

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A Historic Day

Church family it is with great joy that I send you this email. Today’s ruling of the SCOTUS has overturned Roe v Wade. Since 1973, an estimated 63,000,000+ lives have been taken through abortion. The Justices ruled the Constitution had no provision for abortion and is therefore not a federally protected right. For now, the issue of abortion has been pushed down to the States.

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES, WASHINGTON, DC. (Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images)

In Ohio, abortion is legal for up to 22 weeks. The ‘heartbeat’ bill is the proposed bill in our legislature now. Most people expect this bill to pass and be signed quickly. This bill will ban all abortions when a heartbeat is detected. There are two exceptions to medical conditions but nothing related to mental health.

For us as a church, what does the overturning of Roe v Wade mean? First, it means we rejoice. The Lord has shown great kindness to us as a nation after the scourge of abortion. We are as a nation, more fractured and separated from biblical ethics now more than ever. Yet even in this, God has shown his might in this decision. We can take no credit for this. God is the one who has defended the life of the unborn, just like he always has.

1 The king’s heart is a stream of water in the hand of the Lord; he turns it wherever he will. 2 Every way of a man is right in his own eyes, but the Lord weighs the heart. 3 To do righteousness and justice is more acceptable to the Lord than sacrifice. Proverbs 21:1–3 (ESV)

Second, we must mourn the loss of life of 63,000,000+ image-bearers. Each of these lives was made in the image of God. He formed them in the womb. He knew them. He loved them. He created them to live for his glory. Even in this, he knew their days. He knew the shortness of their life. The worth of their life is determined by God their Maker and being made in his image. The worth of their life is not determined by those who took their lives in the womb. God determines their life and with their deaths, we must mourn.

13 For you formed my inward parts; you knitted me together in my mother’s womb. 14 I praise you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Wonderful are your works; my soul knows it very well. 15 My frame was not hidden from you, when I was being made in secret, intricately woven in the depths of the earth. 16 Your eyes saw my unformed substance; in your book were written, every one of them, the days that were formed for me, when as yet there was none of them. Psalm 139:13–16 (ESV)

Third, we must continue to do business as usual. It is a blessing to be part of a church that has a history of caring for the unborn. As a church, we support A Caring Place a pregnancy resource center that leads the way in our area. Keep them in prayer as centers similar to theirs have been vandalized since the Dobb’s opinion leaked. We support children in our area through our sewing ministry where blankets, clothes, and other items have been donated by the thousands to the Cincinnati Children’s hospital. We donate backpacks for kids in foster care who are in need. These are the regular things we do as a church. Some of you work individually in various ways in our community. As a need arises, we have always cared for people in need. Recently, we have supported families, single moms, and even older adults who are in need. For us as believers in Jesus, caring for the needs of others is the most natural thing we can do. We agree with and model ministry was given to us by James, the brother of Jesus.

Religion that is pure and undefiled before God the Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained from the world. James 1:27 (ESV)

 Fourthly, we must renew our efforts in sharing the gospel of Jesus Christ. We must recognize the enemy has blinded the eyes of many who try and justify abortion. If their eyes are not open to the atrocity of abortion and the seriousness of their sin there is no hope. God will not be mocked. He alone is the author of life. He will not let sin go unpunished. Their only hope is the life-saving message of the gospel.

The message is this: God has made man in his image. He created them but they rejected him in sin. Man has lived contrary to God’s law and sought to usurp his power and his place as supreme in this world and their life. Their acts of rebellion against God deserve God’s wrath. They are unable to appease God because they have positioned themselves as God’s enemy. The only hope man has is in God’s intervention. In his great kindness and love, God sent his one and only Son into the world. Jesus came to earth and lived in perfect agreement with God’s Law but in a great reversal, he was sent to the cross to die. In his death, he died for our guilt. The innocent died for the guilty. He paid for our sin and guilt. On the third day, he rose from the grave. Anyone who calls on his name will be saved. When this message is heard in the heart of man, if they will call out to God for salvation, his wrath is appeased because of the death of Jesus on the cross. This is the message we must share. It is our only hope and this hope is more than enough.  

11 Rescue those who are being taken away to death; hold back those who are stumbling to the slaughter. 12 If you say, “Behold, we did not know this,” does not he who weighs the heart perceive it? Does not he who keeps watch over your soul know it, and will he not repay man according to his work? Proverbs 24:11–12 (ESV)

We must share the message of the gospel and pray for a mighty move of God. Man cannot be saved by persuasive speech. No one comes to the knowledge of Jesus as Savior unless the Father draws them and the Spirit reveals it to them, so we must pray. Prayer must be accompanied with sharing the message of Jesus. The world may see it as folly but for those who hear it through the work of the Spirit, it is the very words of life.

21 For since, in the wisdom of God, the world did not know God through wisdom, it pleased God through the folly of what we preach to save those who believe. 22 For Jews demand signs and Greeks seek wisdom, 23 but we preach Christ crucified, a stumbling block to Jews and folly to Gentiles, 24 but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 1 Corinthians 1:21–24 (ESV)

Today, we celebrate life. We mourn for the loss of life. We press on in our efforts to care for the lives of those in need. We do all this so we might share the message of the gospel.

Until everyone hears,

Pastor James

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The Monday after Mother’s Day

What a day it was yesterday, we celebrated Mothers Day. Hopefully, you went out to eat, wore nice clothes, and smiled for all the pictures. But you know what happened? Weekend chores were probably neglected, lunches were unmade, and laundry remained undone. After a day of celebrating all the moms, there comes the Monday after Mother’s Day.  

I can leave the house for the day or even days for work and the house continues to function, almost without any interruption. What happens when my wife leaves for a couple of hours? Pandemonium, total and complete chaos ensues as I’m left in charge. I am big on the idea that dads never babysit but in my house, I’m the JV team of keeping the house going. I may cut the grass and deal with the gross stuff. I may even help in planning fun things but in keeping things orderly and organized, well, let’s not address those deficiencies!  

Monday comes, school for the kids, lunch, dinner, laundry, and everything else to do remains. All the things that need to happen today, just today, are not adequately addressed by one day of celebration. Can we adequately celebrate our mothers or those who are the mother of our children? Nope, we can’t do it, and it’s not even close.  

I wrote this article and saw this video that says what I feel much better.

On this Monday after Mother’s Day, I am thankful for the day in and day out work moms do. There is this glorious mundane work of mothers. There is a constancy in life and work that only comes from present and persistent moms. Mothers have a calming presence as they continue on the routine of life. They live and serve their families with little to no fanfare. Moms receive the fiercest attitudes from their kids. They deal with all of the things.  

I posit this to you, mothers must be a ministry priority for any church, especially the global church. If we are to think missiologically about the impact moms have on the health of the church, we must think about mothers and their role in the life of the church. Timothy, the pastor of the church at Ephesus, and a key disciple of the Apostle Paul was taught the Scriptures by his mother and grandmother. Paul writes, “I am reminded of your sincere faith, a faith that dwelt first in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice and now, I am sure, dwells in you as well (2 Tim 1:5).” 

If you have read the book The Insanity of God we can see the way the church is persecuted in different parts of the world. The stories of the imprisonments are incredible. The men go to prison and continue to share the gospel, make disciples, and even plant churches. In the book, there are stories of men spending years in jail because of leading churches and sharing the gospel. What stood out to me is the need for ministry to women because they are the ones who remain at home while the men serve a prison sentences. The women of the church help to share the gospel with the kids. They live out the gospel before their children, raising another generation of gospel-believing boys and girls when the men are in the home and when they are gone.  

For us in the US and the West, the chance of being imprisoned for the sake of the gospel is almost nonexistent. Even still, the role mothers play in the lives of their children remains. What ministry could function without the women and moms of the church? None of them, even the men’s ministry!

What is the method for developing a robust ministry that emphasizes the importance of women and mothers? Paul writing to another of his disciples, Titus, writes, “Older women likewise are to be reverent in behavior, not slanderers or slaves to much wine. They are to teach what is good, and so train the young women to love their husbands and children, to be self-controlled, pure, working at home, kind, and submissive to their own husbands, that the word of God may not be reviled (Titus 2:3-5).” On the Monday after Mother’s Day, we see that what is needed is for older women to teach and train younger women how to live, love, and lead a life following the Word of God. So it is, what is needed again is not a day to celebrate all the mothers. What is needed again, is the mundane Monday mothering and instructing of the ins and the outs of life. We see on the Monday after Mother’s Day what we need is moms.  

To all the moms out there, thanks for what you do. You are raising a generation of faithful children and your husbands are thankful, especially on the Monday after Mother’s Day.   

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The Imitation of Christ, a book review.

Kempis, Thomas à.  The Imitation of Christ, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1996).

In studying for a sermon, I came across the impact Thomas à Kempis’s devotional book had upon the conversion of John Wesley. Wesley was the founder of the Methodist church. His conversion and the early Methodist lifestyle have always been of great interest to me, even as a card-carrying Baptist.  

Thomas à Kempis was a fifteenth-century monk who wrote this small book that has two distinct parts. Books one and two are short chapters, sometimes only one or two paragraphs that point to the inward life of the believer. Books three and four functions as a conversation between “The Disciple” and “The Voice of Christ.”

I read this book electronically and found the highlighting feature helpful. I found that at the end of the short book, I accumulated fourteen pages of quotes. In looking over my quotes, most of them came from the first two books.

The help for the believer in the war against sin and our walk with the Lord. Kempis is masterful in dealing with sin and our approach to the Lord. He says, “I would rather feel contrition than know how to define it (2).” What good are academic degrees for the Christian, and in my case pastor, if we do not walk humbly with our God? Kempis echoes this truth saying, “He is truly great who is little in his own eyes and makes nothing of the highest honor (7).” It was here in these first two books where Kempis operates like a surgeon of the soul calling us all to find our worth in knowing Christ and being known by him.

Kempis allows us to see sufferings and trials in a way that promotes our Christian walk. Present trials and sufferings purge us of our utopian view of this world. He says, “It is good for us to have trials and troubles at times, for they often remind us that we are on probation and ought not to hope in any worldly thing. It is good for us sometimes to suffer contradiction, to be misjudged by men even though we do well and mean well. These things help us to be humble and shield us from vainglory (19).” Lest you think he backs off in his view of our response to life, he says, “Our wretched body complains so easily because our soul is altogether so lifeless (42).” OUCH! What is our hope? Kempis is clear, “You have here no lasting home. You are a stranger and a pilgrim wherever you may be, and you shall have no rest until you are wholly united with Christ (60).”

Now, looking toward books three and four, I have fewer quotes and even fewer nice things to say. In these books, Kempis proceeds conversationally between “The Voice of Christ” and “The Disciple.” Quite frankly, these two sections did not have the same impact on me. I am quite leary of devotionals that transition to the first person for Jesus, remember the whole card-carrying Baptist thing? I believe God spoke and his words are contained in the written Word of the Bible. Modern-day devotional books like Jesus Calling or even ancient ones like Imitation of Christ that go into the first person, even if all they say is Scriptural, is just a step too far for me.

I finished this book and as far as a recommendation, I can give one only cautiously. I want us all to greatly value the written Word and see such attempts to speak for Christ in a first-person setting, as crossing the line. I will leave you with this last quote, and I hope in sharing it, you will see the folly of trying to speak for Christ. “The whole life of Christ was a cross and a martyrdom, and do you seek rest and enjoyment for yourself (89)?” We know nothing of the cross because Christ bore it. As for martyrdom, we only suffer a moment compared to the suffering Christ endured on our behalf. So while some devotionals are easy to read and can seem inspirational, especially when we consider how difficult the Bible is to read and understand at times, let’s do the hard work of consistent Bible reading because in doing so, we get to meet God through his written Word.

Here are 14 pages of quotes I copied from the book as I read it in Logos.

Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1996).

Imitating Christ and Despising All Vanities on Earth Page 1

By these words of Christ we are advised to imitate His life and habits, if we wish to be truly enlightened and free from all blindness of heart. Let our chief effort, therefore, be to study the life of Jesus Christ.

Imitating Christ and Despising All Vanities on Earth Page 1

Now, there are many who hear the Gospel often but care little for it because they have not the spirit of Christ.

Imitating Christ and Despising All Vanities on Earth Page 2

I would rather feel contrition than know how to define it.

Having a Humble Opinion of Self Page 3

Intellectuals like to appear learned and to be called wise.

Having a Humble Opinion of Self Pages 3–4

Do not be proud, therefore, because of your learning or skill. Rather, fear because of the talent given you.

The Doctrine of Truth Page 6

The more recollected a man is, and the more simple of heart he becomes, the easier he understands sublime things, for he receives the light of knowledge from above.

The Doctrine of Truth Page 7

If men used as much care in uprooting vices and implanting virtues as they do in discussing problems, there would not be so much evil and scandal in the world, or such laxity in religious organizations.

The Doctrine of Truth Page 7

On the day of judgment, surely, we shall not be asked what we have read but what we have done; not how well we have spoken but how well we have lived.

The Doctrine of Truth Page 7

He is truly great who is little in his own eyes and makes nothing of the highest honor.

The Doctrine of Truth Pages 7–8

He is truly wise who looks upon all earthly things as folly that he may gain Christ. He who does God’s will and renounces his own is truly very learned.

Reading the Holy Scripture Page 10

TRUTH, not eloquence, is to be sought in reading the Holy Scriptures; and every part must be read in the spirit in which it was written.

Reading the Holy Scripture Page 10

God speaks to us in many ways without regard for persons.

Unbridled Affections Page 11

An unmortified man is quickly tempted and overcome in small, trifling evils; his spirit is weak, in a measure carnal and inclined to sensual things; he can hardly abstain from earthly desires.

Unbridled Affections Page 11

True peace of heart, then, is found in resisting passions, not in satisfying them. There is no peace in the carnal man, in the man given to vain attractions, but there is peace in the fervent and spiritual man.

Avoiding False Hope and Pride Page 13

If there is good in you, see more good in others, so that you may remain humble. It does no harm to esteem yourself less than anyone else, but it is very harmful to think yourself better than even one.

Shunning Over-familiarity Page 14

DO NOT open your heart to every man, but discuss your affairs with one who is wise and who fears God.

Obedience and Subjection Page 15

Many live in obedience more from necessity than from love. Such become discontented and dejected on the slightest pretext; they will never gain peace of mind unless they subject themselves wholeheartedly for the love of God.

Obedience and Subjection Page 15

Everyone, it is true, wishes to do as he pleases and is attracted to those who agree with him. But if God be among us, we must at times give up our opinions for the blessings of peace.

Obedience and Subjection Page 15

It may happen, too, that while one’s own opinion may be good, refusal to agree with others when reason and occasion demand it, is a sign of pride and obstinacy.

Acquiring Peace and Zeal for Perfection Page 17

Because they tried to mortify entirely in themselves all earthly desires, and thus they were able to attach themselves to God with all their heart and freely to concentrate their innermost thoughts.

Acquiring Peace and Zeal for Perfection Page 17

If we mortified our bodies perfectly and allowed no distractions to enter our minds, we could appreciate divine things and experience something of heavenly contemplation.

Acquiring Peace and Zeal for Perfection Page 17

The greatest obstacle, indeed, the only obstacle, is that we are not free from passions and lusts, that we do not try to follow the perfect way of the saints.

Acquiring Peace and Zeal for Perfection Page 18

If we tried, however, to stand as brave men in battle, the help of the Lord from heaven would surely sustain us. For He Who gives us the opportunity of fighting for victory, is ready to help those who carry on and trust in His grace.

Acquiring Peace and Zeal for Perfection Page 18

If we let our progress in religious life depend on the observance of its externals alone, our devotion will quickly come to an end.

Acquiring Peace and Zeal for Perfection Page 18

Resist temptations in the beginning, and unlearn the evil habit lest perhaps, little by little, it lead to a more evil one.

The Value of Adversity Page 19

IT IS good for us to have trials and troubles at times, for they often remind us that we are on probation and ought not to hope in any worldly thing. It is good for us sometimes to suffer contradiction, to be misjudged by men even though we do well and mean well. These things help us to be humble and shield us from vainglory.

The Value of Adversity Page 19

Therefore, a man ought to root himself so firmly in God that he will not need the consolations of men.

Resisting Temptation Page 20

Yet temptations, though troublesome and severe, are often useful to a man, for in them he is humbled, purified, and instructed.

Resisting Temptation Page 20

There is no state so holy, no place so secret that temptations and trials will not come. Man is never safe from them as long as he lives, for they come from within us—in sin we were born.

Resisting Temptation Page 22

Some, guarded against great temptations, are frequently overcome by small ones in order that, humbled by their weakness in small trials, they may not presume on their own strength in great ones.

Avoiding Rash Judgment Pages 23–24

If you rely more upon your intelligence or industry than upon the virtue of submission to Jesus Christ, you will hardly, and in any case slowly, become an enlightened man. God wants us to be completely subject to Him and, through ardent love, to rise above all human wisdom.

Bearing with the Faults of Others Page 27

UNTIL God ordains otherwise, a man ought to bear patiently whatever he cannot correct in himself and in others. Consider it better thus—perhaps to try your patience and to test you, for without such patience and trial your merits are of little account. Nevertheless, under such difficulties you should pray that God will consent to help you bear them calmly.

If, after being admonished once or twice, a person does not amend, do not argue with him but commit the whole matter to God that His will and honor may be furthered in all His servants, for God knows well how to turn evil to good. Try to bear patiently with the defects and infirmities of others, whatever they may be, because you also have many a fault which others must endure.

If you cannot make yourself what you would wish to be, how can you bend others to your will? We want them to be perfect, yet we do not correct our own faults. We wish them to be severely corrected, yet we will not correct ourselves.

Monastic Life Page 29

He who seeks anything but God alone and the salvation of his soul will find only trouble and grief, and he who does not try to become the least, the servant of all, cannot remain at peace for long.

The Practices of a Good Religious Page 33

THE life of a good religious ought to abound in every virtue so that he is interiorly what to others he appears to be.

The Practices of a Good Religious Page 33

With good reason there ought to be much more within than appears on the outside, for He who sees within is God, Whom we ought to reverence most highly wherever we are and in Whose sight we ought to walk pure as the angels.

The Practices of a Good Religious Page 34

Devotions not common to all are not to be displayed in public, for such personal things are better performed in private.

The Love of Solitude and Silence Page 36

SEEK a suitable time for leisure and meditate often on the favors of God. Leave curiosities alone.

The Love of Solitude and Silence Page 38

If in the beginning of your religious life, you live within your cell and keep to it, it will soon become a special friend and a very great comfort.

The Love of Solitude and Silence Page 38

In silence and quiet the devout soul advances in virtue and learns the hidden truths of Scripture.

The Love of Solitude and Silence Page 39

Raise your eyes to God in heaven and pray because of your sins and shortcomings. Leave vanity to the vain. Set yourself to the things which God has commanded you to do. Close the door upon yourself and call to you Jesus, your Beloved. Remain with Him in your cell, for nowhere else will you find such peace.

Sorrow of Heart Page 40

IF YOU wish to make progress in virtue, live in the fear of the Lord, do not look for too much freedom, discipline your senses, and shun inane silliness.

Sorrow of Heart Pages 40–41

Fight like a man. Habit is overcome by habit. If you leave men alone, they will leave you alone to do what you have to do. Do not busy yourself about the affairs of others and do not become entangled in the business of your superiors. Keep an eye primarily on yourself and admonish yourself instead of your friends.

Sorrow of Heart Page 42

Our wretched body complains so easily because our soul is altogether too lifeless.

Thoughts on the Misery of Man Page 44

Do not lose heart, then, my brother, in pursuing your spiritual life. There is yet time, and your hour is not past. Why delay your purpose? Arise! Begin at once and say: “Now is the time to act, now is the time to fight, now is the proper time to amend.”

Thoughts on the Misery of Man Page 45

So long as we live in this fragile body, we can neither be free from sin nor live without weariness and sorrow.

Thoughts on the Misery of Man Page 45

How great is the frailty of human nature which is ever prone to evil! Today you confess your sins and tomorrow you again commit the sins which you confessed. One moment you resolve to be careful, and yet after an hour you act as though you had made no resolution.

Thoughts on the Misery of Man Page 45

We have cause, therefore, because of our frailty and feebleness, to humble ourselves and never think anything great of ourselves.

Thoughts on the Misery of Man Page 45

It would be beneficial for us, like good novices, to be instructed once more in the principles of a good life, to see if there be hope of amendment and greater spiritual progress in the future.

Thoughts on Death Page 46

VERY soon your life here will end; consider, then, what may be in store for you elsewhere. Today we live; tomorrow we die and are quickly forgotten. Oh, the dullness and hardness of a heart which looks only to the present instead of preparing for that which is to come!

Therefore, in every deed and every thought, act as though you were to die this very day. If you had a good conscience you would not fear death very much. It is better to avoid sin than to fear death. If you are not prepared today, how will you be prepared tomorrow? Tomorrow is an uncertain day; how do you know you will have a tomorrow?

Thoughts on Death Page 46

What good is it to live a long life when we amend that life so little? Indeed, a long life does not always benefit us, but on the contrary, frequently adds to our guilt.

Thoughts on Death Page 47

How happy and prudent is he who tries now in life to be what he wants to be found in death.

Judgment and the Punishment of Sin Page 50

IN ALL things consider the end; how you shall stand before the strict Judge from Whom nothing is hidden and Who will pronounce judgment in all justice, accepting neither bribes nor excuses. And you, miserable and wretched sinner, who fear even the countenance of an angry man, what answer will you make to the God Who knows all your sins?

Zeal in Amending Our Lives Page 55

A man makes the most progress and merits the most grace precisely in those matters wherein he gains the greatest victories over self and most mortifies his will. True, each one has his own difficulties to meet and conquer, but a diligent and sincere man will make greater progress even though he have more passions than one who is more even-tempered but less concerned about virtue.

Zeal in Amending Our Lives Page 58

A fervent and diligent man is ready for all things. It is greater work to resist vices and passions than to sweat in physical toil. He who does not overcome small faults, shall fall little by little into greater ones.

Meditation Page 60

Do not place much confidence in weak and mortal man, helpful and friendly though he be; and do not grieve too much if he sometimes opposes and contradicts you. Those who are with us today may be against us tomorrow, and vice versa, for men change with the wind. Place all your trust in God; let Him be your fear and your love. He will answer for you; He will do what is best for you.

Meditation Page 60

You have here no lasting home. You are a stranger and a pilgrim wherever you may be, and you shall have no rest until you are wholly united with Christ.

Meditation Page 61

How can you be a friend of Christ if you are not willing to suffer any hardship? Suffer with Christ and for Christ if you wish to reign with Him.

Meditation Page 62

If all were well with you, therefore, and if you were purified from all sin, everything would tend to your good and be to your profit. But because you are as yet neither entirely dead to self nor free from all earthly affection, there is much that often displeases and disturbs you. Nothing so mars and defiles the heart of man as impure attachment to created things. But if you refuse external consolation, you will be able to contemplate heavenly things and often to experience interior joy.

Purity of Mind and Unity of Purpose Page 67

A MAN is raised up from the earth by two wings—simplicity and purity. There must be simplicity in his intention and purity in his desires. Simplicity leads to God, purity embraces and enjoys Him.

Purity of Mind and Unity of Purpose Page 67

If your heart is free from ill-ordered affection, no good deed will be difficult for you. If you aim at and seek after nothing but the pleasure of God and the welfare of your neighbor, you will enjoy freedom within.

Purity of Mind and Unity of Purpose Page 67

If your heart were right, then every created thing would be a mirror of life for you and a book of holy teaching, for there is no creature so small and worthless that it does not show forth the goodness of God.

The Joy of a Good Conscience Page 72

Praise adds nothing to your holiness, nor does blame take anything from it. You are what you are, and you cannot be said to be better than you are in God’s sight. If you consider well what you are within, you will not care what men say about you. They look to appearances but God looks to the heart. They consider the deed but God weighs the motive.

Loving Jesus above All Things Page 73

Love Him, then; keep Him as a friend. He will not leave you as others do, or let you suffer lasting death. Sometime, whether you will or not, you will have to part with everything. Cling, therefore, to Jesus in life and death; trust yourself to the glory of Him who alone can help you when all others fail.

Loving Jesus above All Things Page 74

You will quickly be deceived if you look only to the outward appearance of men, and you will often be disappointed if you seek comfort and gain in them. If, however, you seek Jesus in all things, you will surely find Him. Likewise, if you seek yourself, you will find yourself—to your own ruin. For the man who does not seek Jesus does himself much greater harm than the whole world and all his enemies could ever do.

The Intimate Friendship of Jesus Page 75

How dry and hard you are without Jesus! How foolish and vain if you desire anything but Him! Is it not a greater loss than losing the whole world? For what, without Jesus, can the world give you? Life without Him is a relentless hell, but living with Him is a sweet paradise. If Jesus be with you, no enemy can harm you.

Wanting No Share in Comfort Page 80

I have never met a man so religious and devout that he has not experienced at some time a withdrawal of grace and felt a lessening of fervor.

Appreciating God’s Grace Page 82

Resign yourself to patience rather than to comfort, to carrying your cross rather than to enjoyment.

Appreciating God’s Grace Page 82

God does well in giving the grace of consolation, but man does evil in not returning everything gratefully to God. Thus, the gifts of grace cannot flow in us when we are ungrateful to the Giver, when we do not return them to the Fountainhead.

Appreciating God’s Grace Page 83

Give to God what is God’s and ascribe to yourself what is yours. Give Him thanks, then, for His grace, but place upon yourself alone the blame and the punishment your fault deserves.

Few Love the Cross of Jesus Page 85

JESUS has always many who love His heavenly kingdom, but few who bear His cross. He has many who desire consolation, but few who care for trial. He finds many to share His table, but few to take part in His fasting. All desire to be happy with Him; few wish to suffer anything for Him.

The Royal Road of the Holy Cross Page 88

No one understands the passion of Christ so thoroughly or heartily as the man whose lot it is to suffer the like himself.

The Royal Road of the Holy Cross Page 89

The whole life of Christ was a cross and a martyrdom, and do you seek rest and enjoyment for yourself?

The Royal Road of the Holy Cross Page 89

You deceive yourself, you are mistaken if you seek anything but to suffer, for this mortal life is full of miseries and marked with crosses on all sides.

The Royal Road of the Holy Cross Pages 90–91

Be ready to suffer many adversities and many kinds of trouble in this miserable life, for troublesome and miserable life will always be, no matter where you are; and so you will find it wherever you may hide. Thus it must be; and there is no way to evade the trials and sorrows of life but to bear them.

The Royal Road of the Holy Cross Page 92

With good reason, then, ought you to be willing to suffer a little for Christ since many suffer much more for the world.

Truth Speaks Inwardly without the Sound of Words Page 96

Speak to me for the comfort of my soul and for the amendment of my life, for Your praise, Your glory, and Your everlasting honor.

Listen Humbly to the Words of God. Many Do Not Heed Them Page 100

A Prayer For the Grace of Devotion

O Lord my God, You are all my good. And who am I that I should dare to speak to You? I am Your poorest and meanest servant, a vile worm, much more poor and contemptible than I know or dare to say. Yet remember me, Lord, because I am nothing, I have nothing, and I can do nothing. You alone are good, just, and holy. You can do all things, You give all things, You fill all things: only the sinner do You leave empty-handed. Remember Your tender mercies and fill my heart with Your grace, You Who will not allow Your works to be in vain. How can I bear this life of misery unless You comfort me with Your mercy and grace? Do not turn Your face from me. Do not delay Your visitation. Do not withdraw Your consolation, lest in Your sight my soul become as desert land. Teach me, Lord, to do Your will. Teach me to live worthily and humbly in Your sight, for You are my wisdom Who know me truly, and Who knew me even before the world was made and before I was born into it.

We Must Walk before God in Humility and Truth Page 102

Some men walk before Me without sincerity. Led on by a certain curiosity and arrogance, they wish to know My secrets and to understand the high things of God, to the neglect of themselves and their own salvation. Through their own pride and curiosity, and because I am against them, such men often fall into great temptations and sins.

The Wonderful Effect of Divine Love Page 105

Love often knows no limits but overflows all bounds. Love feels no burden, thinks nothing of troubles, attempts more than it is able, and does not plead impossibility, because it believes that it may and can do all things. For this reason, it is able to do all, performing and effecting much where he who does not love fails and falls.

The Wonderful Effect of Divine Love Page 105

Love is watchful.

The Wonderful Effect of Divine Love Page 106

Let my soul exhaust itself in praising You, rejoicing out of love. Let me love You more than myself, and let me not love myself except for Your sake. In You let me love all those who truly love You, as the law of love, which shines forth from You, commands.”

The Proving of a True Lover Page 109

Fight like a good soldier and if you sometimes fall through weakness, rise again with greater strength than before, trusting in My most abundant grace. But beware of vain complacency and pride.

To Despise the World and Serve God is Sweet Page 118

They who cast aside all carnal delights for Your love will find the most sweet consolation of the Holy Ghost. They who enter upon the narrow way for Your name and cast aside all worldly care will attain great freedom of mind.

How One Should Feel and Speak on Every Desirable Thing Page 130

Grant me Your grace, O most merciful Jesus, that it may be with me, and work with me, and remain with me to the very end. Grant that I may always desire and will that which is most acceptable and pleasing to You.

True Comfort is to Be Sought in God Alone Page 131

If you desire these present things too much, you will lose those which are everlasting and heavenly. Use temporal things but desire eternal things. You cannot be satisfied with any temporal goods because you were not created to enjoy them.

Confessing Our Weakness in the Miseries of Life Page 139

Often it is a small thing that makes me downcast and sad. I propose to act bravely, but when even a small temptation comes I find myself in great straits.

Confessing Our Weakness in the Miseries of Life Page 140

Strengthen me with heavenly courage lest the outer man, the miserable flesh, against which I shall be obliged to fight so long as I draw a breath in this wretched life and which is not yet subjected to the spirit, prevail and dominate me.

Above All Goods and All Gifts We Must Rest in God Page 141

ABOVE all things and in all things, O my soul, rest always in God, for He is the everlasting rest of the saints.

Remember the Innumerable Gifts of God Page 144

OPEN my heart, O Lord, to Your law and teach me to walk in the way of Your commandments. Let me understand Your will. Let me remember Your blessings—all of them and each single one of them—with great reverence and care so that henceforth I may return worthy thanks for them. I know that I am unable to give due thanks for even the least of Your gifts. I am unworthy of the benefits You have given me, and when I consider Your generosity my spirit faints away before its greatness. All that we have of soul and body, whatever we possess interiorly or exteriorly, by nature or by grace, are Your gifts and they proclaim Your goodness and mercy from which we have received all good things.

Remember the Innumerable Gifts of God Page 145

All things come from You; therefore, You are to be praised in all things. You know what is good for each of us; and why one should receive less and another more is not for us to judge, but for You Who have marked every man’s merits.

Self-Love is the Greatest Hindrance to the Highest Good Page 155

Do not covet what you may not have. Do not possess anything that can hinder you or rob you of freedom.

Self-Love is the Greatest Hindrance to the Highest Good Page 156

The place matters little if the spirit of fervor is not there; nor will peace be lasting if it is sought from the outside; if your heart has no true foundation, that is, if you are not founded in Me, you may change, but you will not better yourself.

Self-Love is the Greatest Hindrance to the Highest Good Page 157

Give me, Lord, heavenly wisdom to learn above all else to seek and find You, to enjoy and love You more than anything, and to consider other things as they are, as Your wisdom has ordered them. Grant me prudence to avoid the flatterer and to bear patiently with him who disagrees with me. For it is great wisdom not to be moved by the sound of words, nor to give ear to the wicked, flattering siren. Then, I shall walk safely in the way I have begun.

The Quest of Divine Help and Confidence in Regaining Grace Page 160

Your tardiness in turning to prayer is the greatest obstacle to heavenly consolation, for before you pray earnestly to Me you first seek many comforts and take pleasure in outward things.

The Quest of Divine Help and Confidence in Regaining Grace Page 161

And do not consider yourself forsaken if I send some temporary hardship, or withdraw the consolation you desire. For this is the way to the kingdom of heaven, and without doubt it is better for you and the rest of My servants to be tried in adversities than to have all things as you wish.

Restlessness of Soul—Directing Our Final Intention toward God Page 168

MY CHILD, do not trust in your present feeling, for it will soon give way to another. As long as you live you will be subject to changeableness in spite of yourself. You will become merry at one time and sad at another, now peaceful but again disturbed, at one moment devout and the next indevout, sometimes diligent while at other times lazy, now grave and again flippant.

There is No Security from Temptation in This Life Page 171

MY CHILD, in this life you are never safe, and as long as you live the weapons of the spirit will ever be necessary to you. You dwell among enemies. You are subject to attack from the right and the left. If, therefore, you do not guard yourself from every quarter with the shield of patience, you will not remain long unscathed.

There is No Security from Temptation in This Life Page 171

Moreover, if you do not steadily set your heart on Me, with a firm will to suffer everything for My sake, you will not be able to bear the heat of this battle or to win the crown of the blessed.

Pure and Entire Resignation of Self to Obtain Freedom of Heart Page 176

I have said to you very often, and now I say again: forsake yourself, renounce yourself and you shall enjoy great inward peace.

A Man Should Not Be Unduly Solicitous about His Affairs Page 179

My child, it often happens that a man seeks ardently after something he desires and then when he has attained it he begins to think that it is not at all desirable; for affections do not remain fixed on the same thing, but rather flit from one to another. It is no very small matter, therefore, for a man to forsake himself even in things that are very small.

A man’s true progress consists in denying himself, and the man who has denied himself is truly free and secure.

Peace is Not to Be Placed in Men Page 183

Your love for your friend should be grounded in Me, and for My sake you should love whoever seems to be good and is very dear to you in this life.

Every Trial Must Be Borne for the Sake of Eternal Life Page 194

All that passes away with time is trivial.

The Desire of Eternal Life; The Great Rewards Promised to Those Who Struggle Pages 199–200

My child, often, when the fire is burning the flame does not ascend without smoke. Likewise, the desires of some burn toward heavenly things, and yet they are not free from temptations of carnal affection. Therefore, it is not altogether for the pure honor of God that they act when they petition Him so earnestly.

The Desire of Eternal Life; The Great Rewards Promised to Those Who Struggle Page 200

Ask, therefore, not for what is pleasing and convenient to yourself, but for what is acceptable to Me and is for My honor, because if you judge rightly, you ought to prefer and follow My will, not your own desire or whatever things you wish.

The Desire of Eternal Life; The Great Rewards Promised to Those Who Struggle Page 202

Let this be your wish: That whether in life or in death God may be glorified in you.

How a Desolate Person Ought to Commit Himself into the Hands of God Page 203

What does Your servant possess that he has not received from You, and that without any merit of his own? Yours are all the things which You have given, all the things which You have made.

How a Desolate Person Ought to Commit Himself into the Hands of God Page 204

Nothing happens in the world without Your design and providence, and without cause. It is well for me, O Lord, that You have humbled me, that I may learn the justice of Your judgments and cast away all presumption and haughtiness of heart. It is profitable for me that shame has covered my face that I may look to You rather than to men for consolation. Hereby I have learned also to fear Your inscrutable judgment falling alike upon the just and unjust yet not without equity and justice.

How a Desolate Person Ought to Commit Himself into the Hands of God Page 205

Make of me a pious and humble follower, as in Your goodness You are wont to do, that I may walk according to Your every nod. Myself and all that is mine I commit to You to be corrected, for it is better to be punished here than hereafter.

How a Desolate Person Ought to Commit Himself into the Hands of God Page 205

You know all things without exception, and nothing in man’s conscience is hidden from You. Coming events You know before they happen, and there is no need for anyone to teach or admonish You of what is being done on earth. You know what will promote my progress, and how much tribulation will serve to cleanse away the rust of vice. Deal with me according to Your good pleasure and do not despise my sinful life, which is known to none so well or so clearly as to You alone.

How a Desolate Person Ought to Commit Himself into the Hands of God Pages 205–206

Do not allow me to judge according to the light of my bodily eyes, nor to give sentence according to the hearing of ignorant men’s ears. But let me distinguish with true judgment between things visible and spiritual, and always seek above all things Your good pleasure. The senses of men often err in their judgments, and the lovers of this world also err in loving only visible things.

How a Desolate Person Ought to Commit Himself into the Hands of God Page 206

For, as the humble St. Francis says, whatever anyone is in Your sight, that he is and nothing more.

God’s Grace is Not Given to the Earthly Minded Page 211

But he who desires to walk freely with Me must mortify all his low and inordinate affections, and must not cling with selfish love or desire to any creature.

The Different Motions of Nature and Grace Page 212

Nature is crafty and attracts many, ensnaring and deceiving them while ever seeking itself. But grace walks in simplicity, turns away from all appearance of evil, offers no deceits, and does all purely for God in whom she rests as her last end.

The Different Motions of Nature and Grace Page 212

Grace, on the contrary, strives for mortification of self.

The Different Motions of Nature and Grace Page 213

Grace does not consider what is useful and advantageous to herself, but rather what is profitable to many. Nature likes to receive honor and reverence, but grace faithfully attributes all honor and glory to God. Nature fears shame and contempt, but grace is happy to suffer reproach for the name of Jesus. Nature loves ease and physical rest. Grace, however, cannot bear to be idle and embraces labor willingly.

The Different Motions of Nature and Grace Page 213

Grace, on the contrary, delights in simple, humble things, not despising those that are rough, nor refusing to be clothed in old garments.

The Different Motions of Nature and Grace Page 213

Grace, however, is kind and openhearted. Grace shuns private interest, is contented with little, and judges it more blessed to give than to receive.

The Corruption of Nature and the Efficacy of Divine Grace Page 217

Hence it is, my God, that according to the inward man I delight in Your law, knowing that Your command is good, just, and holy, and that it proves the necessity of shunning all evil and sin. But in the flesh I keep the law of sin, obeying sensuality rather than reason.

We Ought to Deny Ourselves and Imitate Christ through Bearing the Cross Page 219

Follow Me. I am the Way, the Truth, and the Life. Without the Way, there is no going. Without the Truth, there is no knowing. Without the Life, there is no living. I am the Way which you must follow, the Truth which you must believe, the Life for which you must hope. I am the inviolable Way, the infallible Truth, the unending Life. I am the Way that is straight, the supreme Truth, the Life that is true, the blessed, the uncreated Life. If you abide in My Way you shall know the Truth, and the Truth shall make you free, and you shall attain life everlasting.

High Matters and the Hidden Judgments of God are Not to Be Scrutinized Page 226

Rejoice, you humble, and exult, you poor, for the kingdom of God is yours, if only you walk in the truth.

All Hope and Trust are to Be Fixed in God Alone Page 227

I had rather be poor for Your sake than rich without You. I prefer rather to wander on the earth with You than to possess heaven without You.

We Should Offer Ourselves and All that We Have to God, Praying for All Page 256

O Lord, upon Your altar of expiation, I offer You all the sins and offenses I have committed in Your presence and in the presence of Your holy angels, from the day when I first could sin until this hour, that You may burn and consume them all in the fire of Your love, that You may wipe away their every stain, cleanse my conscience of every fault, and restore to me Your grace which I lost in sin by granting full pardon for all and receiving me mercifully with the kiss of peace.

Do Not Lightly Forego Holy Communion Page 260

What good is it to delay confession for a long time or to put off Holy Communion? Cleanse yourself at once, spit out the poison quickly. Make haste to apply the remedy and you will find it better than if you had waited a long time.

Man Should Not Scrutinize This Sacrament in Curiosity, but Humbly Imitate Christ and Submit Reason to Holy Faith Page 283

Be not disturbed, dispute not in your mind, answer not the doubts sent by the devil, but believe the words of God, believe His saints and prophets and the evil enemy will flee from you. It is often very profitable for the servant of God to suffer such things. For Satan does not tempt unbelievers and sinners whom he already holds securely, but in many ways he does tempt and trouble the faithful servant.[1]


[1] Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1996), 1–283.

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The Holy Trinity, a book review.

Letham, Robert. The Holy Trinity: In Scripture, History, Theology, and Worship. Phillipsburg, NJ: P and R Publishing, 2004.

Matters of the Trinity are weighty, nuanced, and practical. As a local church pastor, I want to read books that promote theological accuracy and practical application The Holy Trinity is such a book. I found this book helpful and useful in my understanding of the Trinity and have used various parts in sermons as illustrations.

The book has four parts. The book begins with the biblical case for the Trinity beginning in the Old Testament. A chapter is dedicated to each person of the Trinity. While I believe these chapters could have been longer and functioned more like a biblical theology, they accomplish the goal to identify the person of the Trinity in the New Testament. These chapters serve to set up the historical and theological expression of the Trinity which serves as the meat of the book.

The historical and theological sections of the book are divided into two sections. Part Two: The Historical Development and Part Three: Modern Discussion is almost three hundred pages of the book. For my use, interest, and enjoyment, Part Two was more interesting and enjoyable than Part Three, and it is probably my fault.

The chapters covering the early trinitarian issues, Nicaea, and Athanasius are enlightening. Letham shows a deft hand in paring down mass amounts of information into a few paragraphs and in some instances, pages. He covers various church fathers and deduces their writings to various paragraphs highlighting the aspects of the Trinity where they are strong, weak, and issues they write against. His sources and footnotes allow one to study any of the information further. He is kind to those early writers but makes connections to subsequent historical heresies that help tie the parts of the book together.

Did you know Arius’ heresy gained popularity through the many songs he composed? Neither did I. Little nuggets like that exist all throughout the book. It is easy to use the information contained in the book and bridge it to modern-day application. Letham does a masterful job highlighting the early adopters and later disciples and how these various groups impact the church as a whole in different times.

In full disclosure, I found Part Three less profitable than the first two sections. I believe this is entirely my fault. As an evangelical pastor, I am not inclined to read much from Eastern theological perspectives. I learned much from this section but most of it was relatively newer material to me whereas the early church fathers were more familiar. I have read some of Barth and Moltmann. I see more relevance in Barth for modern-day scholarship but in my reading, I have never encountered Sergius Bulgakov. The Eastern-focused aspects of the modern conversation were not as applicable to me.

Everything comes together in the final section where Letham shows the interconnectedness of Trinitarian thinking as it pertains to worship. This chapter would have sufficed as a conclusion for me. Thinking and reading about the Trinity is good but it is better to express worship to our Triune God. How the Spirit enables and encourages us to worship is something I will continue to think about. What Letham has begun in this book as it pertains to a Trinitarian view of worship will be helpful for years to come for me.

You should read this book. It is helpful. It is edifying, even if you learn some new names along the way. There is a great payout in the concluding chapters where you will see the glorious Triune God in how we love and how we worship.  

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mission killers: newsletters and reports

Would you fire Jesus from your missions agency? Would you lead your church to stop supporting him if he was your missionary? These questions seem outrageous and in a way, I mean them to be. Sadly, there is more truth to these questions than anyone wants to admit.

Modern missionaries are not Jesus. They do not claim to be the Savior of the world. They are just his messengers. Somehow, we want to hold them to a higher standard than we would the one they serve.

Here is the scenario. The missionary either raises their support or they are fully funded. Normally, the missionary who raises support will send out newsletters chronically their ministry successes. These newsletters will be full of pictures, numbers of decisions, worship attendance, or other metrics. The newsletters justify the missionary’s support. Like the newsletter, the missionary who is fully funded answers monthly ministry reports with much of the same information. Yearly reports must show a growing ministry of more salvations, baptisms, and new churches.

The missionary is tempted to embellish numbers or frustrated to see all their ministry turned to just a couple of numbers on a report or newsletter. Month after month, all of their hard work and ministry turned into numbers that never seem to be enough.

Can you imagine, Jesus in this situation? Early in his ministry, he had performed miracles, turned water into wine, and called the twelve disciples. One Passover over five thousand men and their families were fed by Jesus. Can you imagine his ministry report!

Well if you keep reading in John 6 where it records Jesus feeding the five thousand men, you will see that things take a turn for Jesus’ ministry report. Jesus began to teach on the meaning of the Lord’s Supper. Jesus said, “I am the bread of life” (Jn 6:35). Then Jesus said in the synagogue in Capernaum, “Eat my flesh and drink my blood.” Then thousands left him (Jn 6:66). So many left Jesus that he asked the twelve, “Do you want to go away as well” (Jn 6:67).

Peter answered in a way that may help us evaluate the missionaries we support or oversee. He said, “Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life,and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God” (Jn 6:68-69). Missionaries have the very words of life. Instead of measuring missionaries on the response of lost persons, let’s make sure they are sharing the words of life. Here are some questions to ask instead of being so “decision” or “number” focused in your missionary evaluation.

  1. How are you doing?
  2. How is your family life? Wife? Children?
  3. Is there anything particularly difficult or challenging right now?
  4. What is most life-giving in your ministry?
  5. What are ways you have seen God at work around you?
  6. Is there any ministry story that you would like to share? This can be good or bad. Ministry is hard. We do not always get the “results” we hoped for!
  7. How can I pray for you?

There are many other questions but these are a good start. Instead of evaluating missionaries based upon basic metrics, try and use a time of reporting (which is good) as a way to build relationships and free the missionary to share the words of life. Let’s not forget, William Carey, the “Father of the Modern Day Missions Movement” served seven years before he baptized his first convert. Aren’t we glad support wasn’t taken from him because he didn’t “produce” or “reproduce” enough!